Nursing News

National happiness levels of previous centuries (1820 - 2009) measured for the first time

Reading the past like an open book:
Researchers use text to measure 200 years of happiness

Coventry, UK (October 14, 2019) -- Was there such a thing as 'the good old days' when people were happier? Are current Government policies more or less likely to increase their citizens' feelings of wellbeing?

Study provides insights on treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer

(October 7, 2019) -- A recent analysis reveals that treatment of male breast cancer has evolved over the years. In addition, certain patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors are linked with better survival. The findings are published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.

New capsule can orally deliver drugs that usually have to be injected

  • Coated pill carries microneedles that deliver insulin and other drugs to the lining of the small intestine

CAMBRIDGE, MA, USA (October 7, 2019) -- Many drugs, especially those made of proteins, cannot be taken orally because they are broken down in the gastrointestinal tract before they can take effect. One example is insulin, which patients with diabetes have to inject daily or even more frequently. In hopes of coming up with an alternative to those injections, MIT engineers, working with scientists from Novo Nordisk, have designed a new drug capsule that can carry insulin or other protein drugs and protect them from the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. When the capsule reaches the small intestine, it breaks down to reveal dissolvable microneedles that attach to the intestinal wall and release drug for uptake into the bloodstream.

Crohn's disease study identifies genetic variant with potential to personalize treatment

  • The largest study ever to look at why an expensive and commonly used group of drugs fails some patients with Crohn's disease has identified a genetic marker which could individualise drug treatment

Exeter, Devon, UK (October 7, 2019) -- A UK wide collaboration led by the University of Exeter, Royal Devon & Exeter NHS Foundation Trust and the Wellcome Sanger Institute, has demonstrated that a genetic variant carried by 40% of the population explains why some patients develop antibodies against the anti-TNF drugs, infliximab and adalimumab and lose response. The authors conclude that a further trial is required to confirm that genetic testing prior to treatment will reduce the rate of treatment failure by facilitating the most effective choice of therapy for individual patients. The research, part-funded by Wellcome, Crohn's & Colitis UK, Guts UK, Cure Crohn's Colitis and supported by the NIHR, is part of a programme of work committed to finding the right drug for the right patient first time.

Antipsychotics linked to accumulation of hospital days in persons with Alzheimer's disease

JOENSUU, KUOPIO, Finland (October 7, 2019) -- People with Alzheimer's disease who used antipsychotic drugs had a higher number of accumulated hospital days than people with Alzheimer's disease who did not use antipsychotics, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. The results were published in the Journal of American Medical Directors Association. During a two-year follow-up, persons who initiated antipsychotic drugs accumulated approximately eleven more hospital days per person-year.

How much are you polluting your office air just by existing?

  • Experiments in a building equipped with thousands of sensors could have answers

WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind., USA (October 3, 2019) -- Just by breathing or wearing deodorant, you have more influence over your office space than you might think, a growing body of evidence shows. But could these basic acts of existence also be polluting the air in the office room where you work?

Parkinson's disease is also present in the blood

Aarhus, Denmark (October 3, 2019) -- Though Parkinson's disease is primarily seen as a brain disorder, researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark, have measured that the disease in the blood induces immune-imbalance. This advocates for immune modulation as alternative treatment.

Gastroenterology

FODMAPs diet relieves symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease

London, UK (October 2, 2019) -- New research from King's College London has found that a diet low in fermented carbohydrates has improved certain gut symptoms and improved health-related quality of life for sufferers of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Aspirin may prevent air pollution harms

New York, N.Y, USA (October 2, 2019) -- A new study is the first to report evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin may lessen the adverse effects of air pollution exposure on lung function. The team of researchers from the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, Harvard Chan School of Public Health, Boston University School of Medicine published their findings in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

FDA informs patients, providers and manufacturers about potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities for connected medical devices and health care networks that use certain communication software

Silver Spring, MD, USA (October 1, 2019) -- Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is informing patients, health care professionals, IT staff in health care facilities and manufacturers of a set of cybersecurity vulnerabilities, referred to as “URGENT/11,” that—if exploited by a remote attacker—may introduce risks for medical devices and hospital networks. URGENT/11 affects several operating systems that may then impact certain medical devices connected to a communications network, such as wi-fi and public or home Internet, as well as other connected equipment such as routers, connected phones and other critical infrastructure equipment. These cybersecurity vulnerabilities may allow a remote user to take control of a medical device and change its function, cause denial of service, or cause information leaks or logical flaws, which may prevent a device from functioning properly or at all.

Caregivers of people with dementia are losing sleep

Waco, Texas , USA (September 23, 2019) -- Caregivers of people with dementia lose between 2.5 to 3.5 hours of sleep weekly due to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep -- a negative for themselves and potentially for those who receive their care, Baylor University researchers say. But the good news is that simple, low-cost interventions can improve caregivers' sleep and functioning.

Commonly used drug for Alzheimer's disease doubles risk of hospitalization

Ottawa, ON, Canada (September 16, 2019) -- A drug commonly used to manage symptoms of Alzheimer disease and other dementias -- donepezil -- is associated with a two-fold higher risk of hospital admission for rhabdomyolysis, a painful condition of muscle breakdown, compared with several other cholinesterase inhibitors, found a study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

FDA approves new add-on drug to treat off episodes in adults with Parkinson’s disease

Silver Spring, MD, USA (August 28, 2019) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Nourianz (istradefylline) tablets as an add-on treatment to levodopa/carbidopa in adult patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experiencing “off” episodes. An “off” episode is a time when a patient’s medications are not working well, causing an increase in PD symptoms, such as tremor and difficulty walking.

Depression, anxiety linked to opioid use and reduced survival in women with breast cancer

Charlottesville, VA, USA (August 26, 2019) -- Elderly women battling breast cancer who have anxiety, depression or other mental health conditions are more likely to use opioids and more likely to die, a new study led by the University of Virginia School of Medicine suggests. The findings should encourage doctors to better manage mental health in patients with breast cancer and spur care providers to consider alternative pain management such as physical therapy, massage and acupuncture, the researchers say.

Poor sleep can be a minus for caregivers -- and, in turn, for those in their care

Caregivers of people with dementia are losing sleep

Waco, Texas, USA (August 23, 2019) -- Caregivers of people with dementia lose between 2.5 to 3.5 hours of sleep weekly due to difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep -- a negative for themselves and potentially for those who receive their care, Baylor University researchers say.  But the good news is that simple, low-cost interventions can improve caregivers' sleep and functioning.

Diabetes

Too much of a good thing can be dangerous, finds researchers investigating hypoglycemia

ROCHESTER, Minn., USA (August 15, 2019) -- For people with diabetes, taking medications and monitoring their blood sugar is part of the rhythm of their daily lives. However, according to new research from Mayo Clinic, more than 20% of adult patients in the U.S. are likely treated too intensively. This has caused thousands of potentially preventable emergency department visits and hospitalizations for hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

Migraine diagnoses positively associated with all-cause dementia

Frankfurt, Germany (August 14, 2019) -- Several studies have recently focused on the association between migraine headaches and other headaches and dementia and found a positive migraine-dementia relationship. However, most of these studies have failed to simultaneously adjust for several common comorbidities, thus potentially introducing bias into their findings.

Sleep

Optimistic people sleep better, longer

CHAMPAIGN, Ill., USA (August 7, 2019) -- People who are the most optimistic tend to be better sleepers, a study of young and middle-aged adults found. More than 3,500 people ages 32-51 were included in the study sample. The participants included people in Birmingham, Alabama; Oakland, California; Chicago; and Minneapolis.

Recarbrio (imipenem, cilastatin and relebactam)

FDA approves new treatment for complicated urinary tract and complicated intra-abdominal infections

Silver Spring, MD, USA (July 17, 2019) -- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Recarbrio (imipenem, cilastatin and relebactam), an antibacterial drug product to treat adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI).

Is successful HIV therapy a Pyrrhic victory for the brain?

HIV may affect the brain despite ongoing antiretroviral therapy

New Haven, CT, USA (July 15, 2019) -- HIV-positive patients are living longer, healthier lives thanks to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), which prevents the virus from replicating and infecting additional cells. However, HIV's ability to persist in the body despite ongoing cART treatment remains a major obstacle to curing patients. Now, clinical trial results published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation show that HIV can be detected in the central nervous system of patients undergoing long-term cART, and its presence is linked to poor performance on cognitive tests.

Dementia Prevention

Wearing hearing aid may help protect brain in later life

Exeter, UK (July 15, 2019) - A new study has concluded that people who wear a hearing aid for age-related hearing problems maintain better brain function over time than those who do not. It builds on important research in recent years pulled together by the Lancet Commission on Dementia Prevention, Intervention and Care, through which hearing loss emerged as an important risk factor for dementia. This research suggests that wearing a hearing aid may mitigate that risk.

FDA approves new treatment for pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes

Silver Spring, MD, USA (June 17, 2019) --The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Victoza (liraglutide) injection for treatment of pediatric patients 10 years or older with type 2 diabetes. Victoza is the first non-insulin drug approved to treat type 2 diabetes in pediatric patients since metformin was approved for pediatric use in 2000. Victoza has been approved to treat adult patients with type 2 diabetes since 2010.

Drug-resistant infections: If you can't beat 'em, starve 'em, scientists find

  • Researchers repurpose drug to deny drug-resistant fungus of iron, an element crucial to its survival

BUFFALO, N.Y., USA (May 24, 2019) -- How do you fight a fungal infection that is becoming increasingly resistant to medicine? By starving it, found a team of University at Buffalo and Temple University researchers. To treat Candida albicans, a common yeast that can cause illness in those with weakened immune systems, researchers limited the fungus' access to iron, an element crucial to the organism's survival.

Psychiatry

Study supports effectiveness of new fast-acting antidepressant, esketamine nasal spray

Washington, DC, USA (May 21, 2019) - New research supports the effectiveness and safety of esketamine nasal spray in treating depression in people who have not responded to previous treatment. The research will be published online today in the American Journal of Psychiatry. This study is one of the key studies that led to the recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of esketamine nasal spray, in conjunction with an oral antidepressant, for use in people with treatment-resistant depression.

Implementing a care pathway for spatial neglect to improve stroke outcomes

  • Stroke researchers strive to close the implementation gap for spatial neglect care

East Hanover, NJ., USA (May 14, 2019) - Spatial neglect remains a hidden disability despite the availability of effective tools for the diagnosis and treatment for this common complication of stroke. Addressing this implementation gap is critical to reducing disability, improving outcomes and controlling costs of stroke care, according to an article in Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, "Update on the Clinical Approach to Spatial Neglect" (DOI:10.1007/s11910-019-0940-0) published online on April 4, 2019. The authors are A.M. Barrett, MD, of the Center for Stroke Rehabilitation Research at Kessler Foundation, and K.E. Houston, OD, MSc, of Harvard Medical School and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital.

Findings can be used to develop new, health-focused interventions in aging populations

Physical and mental health of seniors linked to optimism, wisdom and loneliness

San Diego, California, USA (May 8, 2019) -- Ten thousand Baby Boomers turn 65 every day. By 2029, the entire generation born between 1946 and 1964 will be at least that old. What happens next concerns millions of Americans. Advancing age is broadly associated with declining cognitive, physical and mental health. In a new study of older adults living independently in a senior continuing care facility, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine analyzed how distinctive factors, such as wisdom, loneliness, income and sleep quality, impact -- for good and bad -- the physical and mental functioning of older persons.

When doctors and nurses can disclose and discuss errors, hospital mortality rates decline

Bocconi, Italy (May 7, 2019) - An association between hospitals' openness and mortality rates has been demonstrated for the first time in a study among 137 acute trusts in England, published yesterday in the May issue of Health Affairs. The diffusion of a culture of openness in hospitals is associated with lower hospital mortality, according to a study conducted among 137 acute trusts in England by Veronica Toffolutti (Bocconi University and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine) and David Stuckler (Bocconi University) published in Health Affairs.

Prolonged exposure to low-dose radiation may increase the risk of hypertension, a known cause of heart disease and stroke

DALLAS, USA (May 3, 2019) - Prolonged exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation increased the risk of hypertension, according to a study of workers at a nuclear plant in Russia published in the American Heart Association's journal Hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, can to lead to heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other serious health problems.

Simple positive emotion skills yield benefits in physical and emotional health

Teaching happiness to dementia caregivers reduces their depression, anxiety

CHICAGO, ILL, USA (May 2, 2019) - Caring for family members with dementia -- which is on the rise in the U.S. -- causes significant emotional and physical stress that increases caregivers' risk of depression, anxiety and death.  A new method of coping with that stress by teaching people how to focus on positive emotions reduced their anxiety and depression after six weeks, reports a new national Northwestern Medicine study. It also resulted in better self-reported physical health and positive attitudes toward caregiving.

A third of type one diabetes is misdiagnosed in the over 30s

Exeter (April 30, 2019) - More than a third of people over the age of 30 who are initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes actually have type 1, meaning they are not receiving the right treatment, new research has revealed. The study, led by the University of Exeter, shows that 38% of patients with type 1 diabetes occurring after age 30 were initially treated as type 2 diabetes (without insulin). the team found that half of those misdiagnosed were still diagnosed as type 2 diabetes 13 years later.

Biomarker for chronic fatigue syndrome identified by Stanford researchers

Stanford, California USA (April 29, 2019) - People suffering from a debilitating and often discounted disease known as chronic fatigue syndrome may soon have something they've been seeking for decades: scientific proof of their ailment. Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have created a blood test that can flag the disease, which currently lacks a standard, reliable diagnostic test.

Pediatricians and nurse practitioners report using strategies to improve HPV vaccination

BALTIMORE, USA(April 27, 2019) - Pediatricians and nurse practitioners report using several strategies to improve human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, yet also perceive barriers, according to a national American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS) network study. Findings from the study will be presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) 2019 Meeting, taking place on April 24 - May 1 in Baltimore.

As numbers of opioid exposed newborns have increased throughout the US, many approaches have been used to improve care of these infants

Eat, sleep and console tool decreases length of stay and post natal use of opiates

BALTIMORE, USA (April 27, 2019) - A new quality improvement tool called Eat, Sleep and Console (ESC) shows consistent signs of improved care of opioid-exposed newborns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Findings from the study will be presented during the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) 2019 Meeting, taking place on April 24 - May 1 in Baltimore.

How does chronic edema impact health-related quality of life?

New Rochelle, NY, USA(April 26, 2019) -- Final results of the large, international LIMPRINT study have provided new data on the prevalence of chronic swelling and the devastating impact it can have on health-related quality of life. A broad range of articles that give a comprehensive view of the conceptual design, implementation, results, and interpretation of the LIMPRINT findings are published in a special issue of Lymphatic Research and Biology, a peer-reviewed online journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. Click here to read the open access special issue on the Lymphatic Research and Biology website.

Accidentally dislodged breathing tube is fourth-most common adverse event in the nation's NICUs

Children's NICU slashes unintended extubation rates by 60% over 10 years

WASHINGTON, USA-(April 26, 2019) - A quality-improvement project at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Children's National that included standardized taping methods, bedside review of events within 72 hours and reducing how often newborns received chest X-rays reduced unintended extubations by 60% over 10 years and saved an estimated $1.5 million per year, according to research published online April 26, 2019 in Pediatrics.

Stroke Journal Report

Many stroke patients not screened for osteoporosis, despite known risks

DALLAS, USA (April 25, 2019) -- The majority of stroke survivors are not screened or treated for osteoporosis, broken bones, or fall risk -- despite stroke being a risk factor for these conditions. The risk is up to four times greater than in healthy people, according to new research in the American Heart Association's journal Stroke.

Alcohol relapse rate among liver transplant recipients identical regardless of sobriety period

Baltimore, Maryland, USA (April 25, 2019) - For decades, patients with liver disease related to alcohol use have been told they must be sober for six months before they can get a liver transplant. Many die before that six-month wait period is up. Now, a growing number of researchers are questioning that six-month waiting period.

A correlation was found between strong feelings of responsibility and likelihood of developing OCD or GAD in American university students

Being too harsh on yourself could lead to OCD and anxiety

Hiroshima, Japan (April 25 2019) - A new study has found that people who reported intense feelings of responsibility were susceptible to developing Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) was published in the International Journal of Cognitive Therapy.

The vaccine proves safe in a small sample of human subjects, opening the way for the next phase of testing

Novel vaccine for colorectal cancer shows positive phase I results

PHILADELPHIA, USA (April 25, 2019) -- A new colorectal cancer vaccine showed positive results in the phase 1 clinical trial to demonstrate that the approach is safe. The patients treated had no signs of serious adverse events and samples of their blood contained markers of immune activation -- an early indication that the vaccine could activate immune cells to fight colorectal tumors and metastases. Further tests to determine if the vaccine is effective at slowing tumor growth are forthcoming.

The glass half-full: How optimism can bias prognosis in serious illness

Burlington, Vermont, USA (April 25, 2019) - Most people think of optimism as a good thing - a positive outlook in challenging circumstances. But in reality, it's a psychological state that can be "contagious" in a bad way. A new study, published in the journal Psycho-Oncology, details how a seriously ill patient's optimism can impact a clinician's survival prognosis in palliative care conversations.

Dentists can be the first line of defense against domestic violence

PHOENIX, USA (April 25, 2019) - The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix and Midwestern University have published an article to bring to light the important role dentists can play in identifying domestic violence victims. Published April 11 in the Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, the article reports that as much as 75 percent of head and neck trauma associated with domestic violence occurs with oral injury. Researchers concluded that dentists are in the unique position to be the first line of defense in identifying evidence of assault, and then reporting potential cases of domestic violence.